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"Storia ed Evoluzione dell'Uniforme Militare"

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"Storia ed evoluzione dell'Uniforme Militare"

 

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La storia dell'uniforme militare comincia solo nel secolo XVII. Le premesse tecniche per la produzione di uniformi furono create dall'espansione industriale. In quell'epoca era già scomparsa l'armatura dei cavalieri, e se gli alti ufficiali ne portavano ancora qualche componente, ciò aveva solo significato simbolico. Nel suo modo di combattere, il dragone del XVI secolo era più che altro un fante a cavallo. Nella Guerra dei Trent'anni l'abbigliamento dei militari dei vari eserciti in lizza era ancora diversificato e l'unico valido segno di riconoscimento tra i membri di un determinato reggimento o reparto era il colore della sciarpa. La prima uniforme militare fu introdotta dal re svedese Gustavo Adolfo, nel quadro del suo riuscito tentativo di creare un esercito ben disciplinato e regolarmente pagato, che non fosse temuto dai civili come una banda di briganti. Poi, nel 1670, Luigi XIV ordinò uniformi omogenee per le parate delle sue truppe: colore, materiale e taglio dei vestiti, numero dei bottoni, insegne e guarnizioni furono prescritte con esattezza. Ma molti stati europei attesero ancora un intero secolo per seguire l'esempio della più grande potenza dell'epoca. Dapprima fu deciso l'uso dell'uniforme solo per i soldati semplici e, per qualche decennio ancora, agli ufficiali fu concesso di vestirsi secondo la propria fantasia. Nel secolo XVIII, quando furono creati nuovi tipi di uniformi, le varie armi e i singoli reparti cominciarono a distinguersi, oltre che per l'organizzazione, anche per l'abbigliamento. La guerra russo-giapponese, dimostrando l'importanza della mimetizzazione nei combattimenti terrestri, impose l'uso dei colori neutri nelle uniformi, che da quell'epoca cominciarono a prediligere il cachi e il grigioverde. Le esperienze dei successivi conflitti hanno portato a ulteriori razionalizzazioni nel taglio, negli accessori, e hanno praticamente eliminato ogni differenza tra l'uniforme dei soldati e quella di campagna degli ufficiali di qualsiasi grado.

 

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Ufficiale pilota in tuta di volo estiva 1937

 

Volendo creare un topic apposito dove riunire tutte le Uniformi che hanno fatto la storia dei nostri e degli altri paesi, esorto tutti gli utenti a contribuire in modo da effettuare una ricostruzione storica collettiva. Unico appunto rivolto a tutti è quello di partecipare, apponendo la storia dell'eventuale "Divisa" apportata alla discussione, evitando di postare la foto senza un minimo cenno storico, in modo da creare un vero e proprio sommario.

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Vediamo se ho capito cosa vuoi. Da una prima ricerca ho trovato questo.

 

URSS, Armata Rossa, fante con гимнастёрка (ghimnastjòrka), BDU standard dal 1941 alla metà degli anni Sessanta.

 

 

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Buffetterie del medesimo periodo

 

 

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Invernale

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Vediamo se ho capito cosa vuoi. Da una prima ricerca ho trovato questo.

 

 

Più o meno si! ;)

 

This USAAF Captain's all set for another bombing raid on Germany, Summer of 1944...

 

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-A11 Flying Helmet & ANBH1 Earphones

-B8 Flying Goggles

-A10R Oxygen Mask & ANB-MC1 Microphone

-Officer's shirt w/ Capt Bars en AAF Prop Insignia & Tie

-ANS31A Flying Suit

-B3 Flying Jacket

-A6 Flying Boots

-A9 Flying Gloves

-A4 Parachute

-RAF Observer's Type Harness

(3500 Sets were issued by the RAF to the USAAF in Britain)

-B4 Life Preserver

-Parachute First Aid Kit

-A11 Wrist Watch

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bekas_birch.jpgm4_jacket.jpg

 

Russia, Spetsnaz (Cпецназ, Войска специального назначения, truppe per compiti speciali), mimetica estiva бекас (beccaccino) e tenuta invernale. La T-shirt a righe azzurre è tipica dei corpi d'élite sovietici/russi.

 

 

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Buffetterie in mimetica estiva.

 

 

 

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BDU Afghanistan, ca. 1985. Tuta polare Клякса (Kljaksa, Macchia) indossata da un tiratore (снайпер, snaipier).

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101st Airborne Men during the Battle of the Bulge, December 1944

 

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The NCO left is a member of the 101st Airborne Signal Company, evidenced by his helmet markings consisting of a square with the tic at the 3 o'clock position. Under his overcoat he wears a reinforced M42 jump jacket for additional warmth. Trousers are the M43 model with added pockets and straps. By now double buckle boots have replaced the jump boots. Armament consists of a folding stock M1A1 Carbine and a captured Luger. Ammo for the carbine is carried in a white washed ammo bandoleer. An M3 trench knife is strapped to his right leg.

The Captain from HQ/501 Parachute Infantry Regiment has camouflaged his helmet with large green spots. This helmet is without doubt a replacement since it has swivel bales. He wears the standard M43 jacket with type 9 Eagle patch and has a K-ration stashed away in his upper right pocket. Rank insignia is only worn on the shirt collar and consists of Captain's bars and numbered 501 Officers crossed rifles. He has obtained a pair of Kersey Lined Trousers. Shoe Pacs keep his feet warm and dry. Equipment is basic Officers' rig with .45 pistol and M3 trench knife. A parachute first aid kit is strapped to the knife's sheath.

At their feet is a wooden chest containing M9A1 Anti Tank Rifle Grenades.

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URSS, Paracadutisti.

 

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Above - Three camouflage uniforms that were worn by the airborne. On the right is a two-piece, TTsKO camouflage. Center is the one-piece, cotton KLMK coveralls. The individual on the left is wearing the two-piece, burlap KZS clothing.

 

"Камуфлированный летний маскировочный комбинезон" or "camouflaged summer deceptive coveralls" is commonly known by its abbreviation "KLMK". Though manufactured in limited production in other camouflage patterns prior to 1968, the coveralls were commonly seen in the two-color, stair-step camouflage used by the Soviet Armed Forces. In 1969, this camouflage pattern was introduced and issued to special purpose forces. This garment is made of a plain-weave, cotton fabric. The colors of the camouflage are light-gray "stair-step" splotches over a mid to dark green background. The soldier in the center in the photo on the left is wearing these coveralls.

 

"Костюм защитной сети" or "camouflaged net outfit" Better known as "KZS," this garment is a two-piece uniform that entered sevice in the mid-1970's. KZS is intended to be a low-cost overgarment that provided a quick means of camouflage. It can be put on easily and can be disposed of once back from a mission. This uniform is made of burlap and the camouflage pattern is the same "stair-step" pattern as the KLMK uniform. The colors used in the camouflage runs the gamut of earth tones. The soldier to the far left of the photo on the left is wearing the KZS uniform.

 

"Трехцветная камуфлированная одежда " or "three-coloured camouflaged clothes," introduced in 1981 was highly kept secret from the West by the Soviet Union until the 1985 parade day celebrating the 40th Anniversary of the Great Patriotic War. This pattern is clearly a use of the US ERDL pattern camouflage. There are two TTsKO camouflages, one with a brown base and another with a lime green base. This camouflage did not see as much action in Afghanistan as KZS or KLMK but it did see its way into the Chechen conflict. It is still used in limited quantites today and has a derivative in use by the Ukrainians. This is originally a Soviet camouflage and would have most likely seen more service if the Soviet Union would not have collapsed. The soldier to the far right of the photo on the left is wearing the TTsKO pattern uniform

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4th Division Officer embarking for Normandy, June 1944

 

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4th Infantry Division Officer embarking for the D-Day invasion of Utah-Beach. I have always felt the IVY guys do not receive enough recognition for what they achieved in Normandy and this display is in their honor.

This Assault Boat Team Leader wears the Gas Impregnated HBT's over the standard wool uniform and is equipped with an Assault Jacket. The gear on his pistol belt includes a Parachute First Aid Pouch and British Made .45 magazine pouch. On his back are a canteen and compass pouch. Armament consists of a .45 cal pistol and an M1 carbine. The Assault Gas Mask is worn on the chest while the M26 USN Lifebelt is slung from the British Made toggle rope. A Gas Detection Brassard is worn on the left sleeve. Insignia is limited to the Lt bar and Infantry crossed rifles on the shirt collar.

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URSS, fanteria motorizzata in tenuta standard invernale.

 

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The Soviets were traditionally issued overcoats for winterwear. In World War Two, the overcoat proved to be a very hindering garment to wear in combat. A two piece padded uniform was created that vastly increased the individual's mobility and also their warmth. Though overcoats are still issued, a two piece winter set is still manufactured and issued for combat use but looks nowhere like its Second World War predecessor. The current winter uniform is a two piece, lined jacket and trousers. The first models were tan and later variants were camouflaged in TTsKO. The jacket itself is made of cotton and has four pockets on the body and has one small pocket on the upper part of each sleeve. The button plaquette is covered with the exception of the throat button. The jacket lining is removable or can be attached for additional warmth and has a gray fur collar that is exposed over the collar of the jacket.

The trousers are the same in which they too are lined. Also made of cotton, they have a pocket on each thigh and have draw-in ties on each cuff of the leg. Suspenders help support the trousers. The three men in the illustration on the left are wearing the two piece winter uniform. The man on the right is wearing the set in TTsKO camouflage.

 

 

 

URSS, fanteria motorizzata in tenuta standard invernale. Soldato.

 

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This soldier is wearing the standard tan, padded winter uniform which consisted of a jacket, trousers and mittens. This jacket has a removable liner and has a faux fur collar that can be turned up to protect the wearer's head from the freezing cold. There is a version of this winter uniform manufactured in the TTsKO camouflage. He is also wearing the enlisted fur cap ушанка, "ushanka" with the standard enameled insignia on its face. This soldier carries the standard infantry rifle of the Soviet Armed Forces; the AK-74. The bayonett for his AK is seen on the left side of his belt. This particular model of bayonett is intended for use with the AK-74 and it can also be mounted on the AKM series of rifles. The scabbard and handle is encased in rust colored bakelite. His field gear consists of the faux leather, brown belt with brass buckle, canteen and 4-celled, tan magazine pouch. The magazine pouch holds up to an additional 120 rounds of 5,45 mm ammunition. The pouch also holds stripper clips for ammunition, rifle cleaning kit and oiler.

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10th Mountain Division Officer in Italy, Early 1945

 

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The above image shows a Captain about to start out on a patrol in the Appenine Mountains. He's equipped with the standard US Army wooden skis and poles. His Ski Trousers are tucked into Ski Gaiters worn above the Mountain Shoes and he wears a fur trimmed Ski Parka. Headgear is the rather rare WW2 Fur Pile Cap with Rank Insignia on the front flap. Further equipment includes Trigger Finger Mittens, an M1 Carbine in its canvas scabbard and a Lightweight Gas Mask Bag worn as a small haversack.

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Germania, Seconda Guerra Mondiale, Granatiere con Panzerschreck, Gren.Regt.1083, 544.Volksgrenadier-Division, 1944.

 

 

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Uniform:

- Winter Fur Cap

- Splinter Pattern Camouflage Winter Mittens

- Marsh 44 Pattern Camouflage Winter Reversible Parka

- M43 Trousers, Keilhosen

- Marsh 44 Pattern Camouflage Reversible Overtrousers

- Sweater

- Felt Winter Marching Boot

Equipment:

- Wehrmacht Equipment Belt

- 9mm Pistole 640(b) Holster

Weapons:

- RPzB 54 "Panzerschreck"

- Rocket

- 9mm Pistole 640(b)

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LCVP-Crewmember, D-Day Normandy 6-6-44

 

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This US Navy Boatswain wears the appropriate clothing to protect himself from the cold and damp nights in the Channel. His helmet is the standard M1 Fix-bale type painted gray in Navy fashion. Over his clothing, he has the USN Wet weather Parka to protect him from the salty water and wears the USN N1 Winter Trousers for warmth. Footwear consists of USN Overshoes. Rather than the USN blue life vest, he has a M1926 USN lifebelt which allows him more freedom of movement in the confined spaces of a Landing Craft. A piece of white parachute silk protects his neck from the gusting winds. A pair of USN Rubberized Mittens and a N1 Winter helmet attached to the jacket's tie cords complete his uniform.

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Italia, Seconda Guerra Mondiale, sottotenente, volontario italiano, 29 Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (Italienische Nr.1), 1945.

 

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Simbolo della 29 Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS Italia

 

 

 

 

Uniform: - Italian M33 Helmet

- M41/M42 Grey-Green Paratroop Uniform

- Italian Trousers

- Pullover Sweater

- Italian M12 Ankle Boots

Equipment: - M1934 Officer's Belt

- Maschinenpistole Ammo Pouch

- Tactical Bag

Weapons:

- Maschinenpistole 739 w/Magazine

Insignia:

- Italian Officer Insignia

- Collar Tabs

- Shoulder Tabs

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Sgt Farmer's Reinforced Jump Suit, Normandy July 1944

 

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This reinforced M42 jump jacket was worn by Sgt William H FARMER, ASN 33519462, of the 508PIR during the Normandy campaign. Sgt Farmer was killed on July 8, 1944 and now rests at the Normandy Military Cemetery at Saint Laurent.

I put this mannequin together for a display and the set is composed of original items only. Other interesting items are the M2 D-Ring helmet with Inland Liner, the Parachute First Aid Packet tied to the suspenders, the 'Rigger Made' Ammo pouch and the M3 Grease Gun.

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Wehrmatch, Volksgrenadier "Vampyr" 31.Volksgrenadier-Div. Berlino 1945

 

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Uniform:

- Field Cap

- M44 Jacket (Wehrmacht Infantry Private)

- Winterarnabzug Trouser, reversible Heer Splinter/White

- M44 Trousers, Keilhosen

- Sweater

- Ankle Boots (Black) w/ gaiters

Equipment:

- M44 Breadbag

- Combat Suspender ("Y" Straps)

- Wehrmacht Equipment Belt w/ belt loop

- Tragestell 39

- S84/98 Bayonet and scabbard

- M31 Mess Kit (medium weathering)

- M31 Water Bottle with hair -- Standard

- M40 Ammo Pouch

Weapons:

- MP44 Magazine w/ weathering

- MP44 w/Vampyr IR Scope & Battery Backpack w/ weathering

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é un vampire l ' ottica sul STG-44 del carrista ?

 

edit non avevo notato che hai cambiato la didascalia

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é un vampire l ' ottica sul STG-44 del carrista ?

 

edit non avevo notato che hai cambiato la didascalia

 

 

Colpa mia, ho fatto un pasticcio. Scusa.

 

 

URSS, Armata Rossa, scout, 1945

 

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Пилотка, шаровари, маскировочный камуфлированный комбинезон

 

Equipment:

PPSh 41 Stick Magazine Pouch

Red Army Belt

BN Gas Mask Bag

Bayonet for SVT-40 Rifle with Scabbar

Dispatch Case

M1929 Water Bottle with Cover

Weapons:

PPSh 41 with Banana Type Magazine

Insignia:

Soviet Red Star Cap Insignia

 

 

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Пилотка, pilotka. Шаровари, sharovari. Borsa per maschera antigas. Borraccia.

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T5 Troop Type Parachute used on D-Day

 

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This T5 Troop Type Parachute is a typical example of the chutes used by US Airborne Forces in the invasion of France. The harness is made of yellowish straps, while the SOA is green. The item is displayed with a B4 Type USAAF Life Preserver and the M1942 Jump Jacket worn by Pvt Daniel J Murphy of S2 Section/Regtl HQ/501PIR. Murphy was one of Col Johnson's bodyguards and survived the war to become a Police Officer and PI. The reinforcements on the elbows and lower pockets are made of tan heavy canvas rather than the usual green/gray color.

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URSS, Paracadutisti, Afghanistan, 1979-89

 

 

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Once the Soviets started to abandon the stale and archaic military thinking that was greatly influenced by the second world war, the Soviets became more practical and began using the experiences gained by the at-the-time new conflict in Afghanistan. One of the first advancements that came from this war was a new uniform that was better suited to aid the soldier in a modern war. This uniform was designed with more pockets to help with carrying more gear. There are not many photos with this uniform and it was almost immediately replaced with the second model, tan uniform.

 

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Known as the \"Afghanistan\" uniform, the jacket and trousers are made of tan cotton twill. Just like the first model, the jacket has pockets, but unlike the first model, it has four pockets instead of two and the buttons on the pockets are covered. The trousers have drawstrings at the cuffs and external cargo pockets on the thighs. This is the most common model uniform seen in Afghanistan. The jacket tightens at the waist with a single steel buckle and strap. The trousers have drawstrings at the cuffs and external cargo pockets on the thighs and a special knife pocket on the right thigh. A two-piece, cotton camouflage uniform also existed in the same pattern, but was issued in Afghanistan in VERY limited numbers. The camouflage pattern is TTsKO (Трехцветная камуфлированная одежда).

 

Insignia - Insignia, including rank, was not commonly worn on the combat uniform (limited exceptions did exist). Obvious reasons being that an individual or an entire unit can be singled out by the enemy. It was standard Soviet practice to go into combat without any identifying insignia on their uniform. Written Soviet combat accounts and photographic evidence confirms this fact.

Civilian Clothing - Civilian clothing was used in a limited capacity out in the field. Items such as sweaters, blue jeans, suspenders, belts and sneakers were usually sent from home and worn by personel in the field. Due to lack of uniform discipline in the field, different civilian clothing items were seen on soldiers.

 

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Paracadutista in una pausa durante una marcia. Notare le scarpe civili. A destra: Тельняшка (tiliàshka, colloquiale per "fatto di tela").

 

 

 

 

 

Тельняшка - Originally a naval garment , this is the most identifiable article of clothing of the Soviet paratrooper, Spetsnaz and various other Soviet special forces (a version of this shirt with green stripes exists for the KGB border guards). The difference between the naval and airborne shirts is that the blue stripes on the airborne version is in their branch color, a lighter blue color (cornflower blue). This cotton knit shirt has blue a white horizontal stripes the entire length of the shirt. A long sleeve and short sleeve version exsist for the navy and no sleeve version is the version used for the airborne.

 

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Baschi standard dei paracadutisti sovietici.

 

 

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Cappelli tropicali usati in Afghanistan dal 1980, e chiamati \"afganka\".

 

 

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Anfibi standard. Buffetterie.

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Continuiamo coi paracadutisti sovietici.

 

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Prior to Afghanistan, the Soviet Army used 4-celled ammunition pouches on thir equipment belt. Soviet troops were largely mechanised infantry who would ride into battle in armoured fighting vehicles, then dismount and clear up any survivors of the stattering artillery barrage delivered before hand."

 

"When they met the counter-revolutionary elements in Afghanistan, the enemy was equipped with Chinese gear. The Chinese had long used chest mounted webbing. The Soviets discovered that in this new type of warfare, the chestrig offered big benefits. Initially they used captured Chicom webbing, then they made their own "bras" (as the Soviets called them) and finally in 1984 (approx.) they started to be issued with Soviet factory made ones. In about 1988 this design changed."

 

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1) Contains an AK cleaning/takedown kit

2) Cardboard boxes of 5,45mm rounds - for reloading

3) Pocket for a single AK mag - AK-74

4) Rubberised pocket for the oil bottle

As you can see, you only can fit 3 magazines in this chestrig. Loose rounds are kept for reloading instead of ready to use magazines.

 

 

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1) Hand launched flares - one red, one white

2) Grenades x4 - 3x F1 fragmentation and 1x RDG5 fragmentation is displayed here

3) Pockets for AK mags - 2x per pocket, 6x in total

4) These straps are for attaching a separate piece of equipment which holds grenades for the OG15/OG30 under barrel grenade launcher

 

 

 

 

 

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RPK-74 Magazine Pouch. Backpack (RD-54).

 

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For the first time in the history of the Soviet armed forces, Soviet soldiers used a wide variety of armored flak jackets for individual protection during the Afghanistan war. At the start of the war, there were not enough flak jackets for everyone. Therefore, flak jackets were issued to soldiers going into direct combat or to those on combat duty. The first battles proved that flak jackets reduced fatalities by two or three times. This made the procurement of sufficient flak jackets a priority, and, by the end of 1988, all the personnel of the 40th Army had flak jackets."

 

"There were five flak jacket models issued during the war. The first model was the Zh-R1 issued in 1980. It weighed four kilograms and was fairly comfortable; however, it failed to provide adequate protection. The 6B3 and YaB4 flak jackets were developed to correct the shortcomings of the Zh-R1. They were issued in 1983 and 1984 and proved more capable of stopping an aimed bullet. However, they both weighed about 10.5 kilograms (23.15 pounds) and were very uncomfortable when worn in the mountains or when it was hot."

 

"In 1985-1986, the Soviets began issuing the Zh-85t and Zh-85k flack jackets. They weighed about 7.5 kilograms (16.5 pounds) and provided chest protection from a bullet fired at the front and spinal protection from fragments impacting in the back. But the area of the body that these flak jackets covered was inadequate. Therefore, these flak jacketswere replaced in 1988 with the Zh-86 single-piece flak jacket that covers 1.6 times more body area. The Zh-86 uses titanium alloys, ceramic armor, and specialty steel."

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Finlandia, Seconda Guerra Mondiale, Artiglieria, Sergente

 

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Finland supplied their troops with a white winter camouflage cover.

The camouflage top, is made of a fleecy cotton. It has an integral hood and two slits about waist level, so that when the jacket is done up the equipment can be accessed. There are four buttons on the front of the white top, and these buttons are made of a white pressed paper.

This Finnish soldier is an artillery sergeant, as shown by his red collar badges with the black border. The three yellow chevrons show his rank. He is wearing an early m/22 leather belt and buckle. This buckle is made of steel and has the Finnish lion inside a wreath in its centre. The three pocket ammunition pouch is surplus WW1 German stock, reinforced and reissued by the Finnish Army. He is also carrying a binocular pouch, marked [sA] on the lid, the leather shows a green color.

 

The tunic is the standard M1936 model with 6 bronze buttons. The M/36 woollen uniform was suitable for the winter conditions, but during the Winter War, 1939 - 1940, it was in short supply. The Finnish Army also issued a M/36 summer tunic for use during the more moderate months of the year.

 

This junior officer could carry a rifle and basic equipment, but he would also be required to carry out other tasks. It would not be uncommon for him to carry other equipment required for orienteering for the movement and setting of guns. He may carry maps, compass, binoculars, usually slung over his shoulder and carried to the rear.

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United States Army Air Force (8th Air Force, USAAF)

 

Flying out of UK from 1942 to 1945. Heavy bombers, medium bombers & fighters. Daylight raids

 

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Finlandia, Seconda Guerra Mondiale, soldato

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In the War between Finland and Russia in 1939 -1940, known as the Winter War, the Finnish Army had very little equipment. This soldier is wearing the M/36 tunic in the standard gray color, with four patch pockets and dark buttons embossed with the Finnish lion. He has also been issued with a cap, belt and ammunition pouch with a Finnish made Mosin Nagant rifle.

 

The soldiers of Finland made use of a great deal of surplus WW1 equipment. The rifle of the army of Finland, was the Russian based Mosin Nagant rifle. It was adopted partly as a result of the vast quantities of Russian rifles that the Finns inherited as a result of the Russian revolution and their own independence.

 

In the Winter War in combat the Finnish soldier would carry ammunition in a set of leather pouches. The pockets were large enough to carry ten rounds of ammunition in each pocket. The pockets had a leather flap, which was held closed by a leather strap and metal pillar stud. Many of these pouches were WW1 surplus

German ammunition pouches, intended for carrying 15 rounds in each pouch, but with the rimmed 7.62mm ammunition the Fins used there was room for only 10 rounds.

 

Finland issued its soldiers with a practical soft peaked uniform cap, also of the model of 1936, which had a blue and white cockade for soldiers.

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US Infantry Korea 1950/53.

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This soldier is typical of the US Infantry in Korea. He carries a Garand M1 rifle with knife bayonet, 2 Mark 2 fragmentation grenades, an entrenching tool, binoculars and extra ammo. His uniform is plain jungle green (camouflage uniforms had not become popular yet) with the brown boots that were above ankle in size. these were the first army boots to do away with the need for gaiters or puttees. Now considered standard and necessary in Korea they were a bit of a novelty. Australians still wore gaiters.

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